# Publications

## Classical variational optimization of PREPARE circuit for quantum phase estimation of quantum chemistry Hamiltonians

We propose a method for constructing PREPARE circuits for quantum phase estimation of a molecular Hamiltonian in quantum chemistry by using variational optimization of quantum circuits solely on classical computers. The PREPARE circuit generates a quantum state which encodes the coefficients of the terms in the Hamiltonian as probability amplitudes and plays a crucial role in the state-of-the-art efficient implementations of quantum phase estimation. We employ the automatic quantum circuit encoding algorithm [Shirakawa et al., arXiv:2112.14524] to construct PREPARE circuits, which requires classical simulations of quantum circuits of O(logN) qubits with N being the number of qubits of the Hamiltonian. The generated PREPARE circuits do not need any ancillary qubit. We demonstrate our method by investigating the number of T-gates of the obtained PREPARE circuits for quantum chemistry Hamiltonians of various molecules, which shows a constant-factor reduction compared to previous approaches that do not use ancillary qubits. Since the number of available logical qubits and T gates will be limited at the early stage of the fault-tolerant quantum computing, the proposed method is particularly of use for performing the quantum phase estimation with such limited capability.

## Variational quantum algorithm for ergotropy estimation in quantum many-body batteries

Quantum batteries are predicted to have the potential to outperform their classical counterparts and are therefore an important element in the development of quantum technologies. In this work we simulate the charging process and work extraction of many-body quantum batteries on noisy-intermediate scale quantum (NISQ) devices, and devise the Variational Quantum Ergotropy (VQErgo) algorithm which finds the optimal unitary operation that maximises work extraction from the battery. We test VQErgo by calculating the ergotropy of a quantum battery undergoing transverse field Ising dynamics. We investigate the battery for different system sizes and charging times and analyze the minimum required circuit depth of the variational optimization using both ideal and noisy simulators. Finally, we optimize part of the VQErgo algorithm and calculate the ergotropy on one of IBM's quantum devices.

## Demonstrating Quantum Computation for Quasiparticle Band Structures

Understanding and predicting the properties of solid-state materials from first-principles has been a great challenge for decades. Owing to the recent advances in quantum technologies, quantum computations offer a promising way to achieve this goal. Here, we demonstrate the first-principles calculation of a quasiparticle band structure on actual quantum computers. This is achieved by hybrid quantum-classical algorithms in conjunction with qubit-reduction and error-mitigation techniques. Our demonstration will pave the way to practical applications of quantum computers.

## Modal analysis on quantum computers via qubitization

Natural frequencies and normal modes are basic properties of a structure which play important roles in analyses of its vibrational characteristics. As their computation reduces to solving eigenvalue problems, it is a natural arena for application of quantum phase estimation algorithms, in particular for large systems. In this note, we take up some simple examples of (classical) coupled oscillators and show how the algorithm works by using qubitization methods based on a sparse structure of the matrix. We explicitly construct block-encoding oracles along the way, propose a way to prepare initial states, and briefly touch on a more generic oracle construction for systems with repetitive structure. As a demonstration, we also give rough estimates of the necessary number of physical qubits and actual runtime it takes when carried out on a fault-tolerant quantum computer.

## Accelerated variational quantum eigensolver with joint Bell measurement

The variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) stands as a prominent quantum-classical hybrid algorithm for near-term quantum computers to obtain the ground states of molecular Hamiltonians in quantum chemistry. However, due to the non-commutativity of the Pauli operators in the Hamiltonian, the number of measurements required on quantum computers increases significantly as the system size grows, which may hinder practical applications of VQE. In this work, we present a protocol termed joint Bell measurement VQE (JBM-VQE) to reduce the number of measurements and speed up the VQE algorithm. Our method employs joint Bell measurements, enabling the simultaneous measurement of the absolute values of all expectation values of Pauli operators present in the Hamiltonian. In the course of the optimization, JBM-VQE estimates the absolute values of the expectation values of the Pauli operators for each iteration by the joint Bell measurement, while the signs of them are measured less frequently by the conventional method to measure the expectation values. Our approach is based on the empirical observation that the signs do not often change during optimization. We illustrate the speed-up of JBM-VQE compared to conventional VQE by numerical simulations for finding the ground states of molecular Hamiltonians of small molecules, and the speed-up of JBM-VQE at the early stage of the optimization becomes increasingly pronounced in larger systems. Our approach based on the joint Bell measurement is not limited to VQE and can be utilized in various quantum algorithms whose cost functions are expectation values of many Pauli operators.

## Quantum Error Detection with Generalized Syndrome Measurement

Quantum error detection has been an experimental focus on early fault-tolerant quantum hardware. However, it requires multiple mid-circuit measurements to extract the syndrome and the readout-induced noise acts as a main contribution to the state infidelity. We present a novel method named Generalized Syndrome Measurement for quantum error detection that only requires a single-shot measurement on a single ancilla, while the canonical syndrome measurement needs to measure multiple times to extract the syndrome for each stabilizer generator. Our method minimizes the readout-induced noise by using single-shot measurements with a tolerable overhead on the gate complexity. We simulated the performance of our method using [[4, 2, 2]] and [[5, 1, 3]] code under realistic noise, and our method outperforms the canonical method when the gate error is comparatively small than the readout error. As mid-circuit measurements are more costly for various kinds of near-term scalable quantum hardware, our method can significantly boost the development of early fault-tolerant quantum computing.

## Computation of Green's function by local variational quantum compilation

Computation of the Green's function is crucial to study the properties of quantum many-body systems such as strongly correlated systems. Although the high-precision calculation of the Green's function is a notoriously challenging task on classical computers, the development of quantum computers may enable us to compute the Green's function with high accuracy even for classically-intractable large-scale systems. Here, we propose an efficient method to compute the real-time Green's function based on the local variational quantum compilation (LVQC) algorithm, which simulates the time evolution of a large-scale quantum system using a low-depth quantum circuit constructed through optimization on a smaller-size subsystem. Our method requires shallow quantum circuits to calculate the Green's function and can be utilized on both near-term noisy intermediate-scale and long-term fault-tolerant quantum computers depending on the computational resources we have. We perform a numerical simulation of the Green's function for the one- and two-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model up to 4×4 sites lattice (32 qubits) and demonstrate the validity of our protocol compared to a standard method based on the Trotter decomposition. We finally present a detailed estimation of the gate count for the large-scale Fermi-Hubbard model, which also illustrates the advantage of our method over the Trotter decomposition.

## Computational analysis of chemical reactions using a variational quantum eigensolver algorithm without specifying spin multiplicity

The analysis of a chemical reaction along the ground state potential energy surface in conjunction with an unknown spin state is challenging because electronic states must be separately computed several times using different spin multiplicities to find the lowest energy state. However, in principle, the ground state could be obtained with just a single calculation using a quantum computer without specifying the spin multiplicity in advance. In the present work, ground state potential energy curves for PtCO were calculated as a proof-of-concept using a variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) algorithm. This system exhibits a singlet-triplet crossover as a consequence of the interaction between Pt and CO. VQE calculations using a statevector simulator were found to converge to a singlet state in the bonding region, while a triplet state was obtained at the dissociation limit. Calculations performed using an actual quantum device provided potential energies within ±2 kcal/mol of the simulated energies after adopting error mitigation techniques. The spin multiplicities in the bonding and dissociation regions could be clearly distinguished even in the case of a small number of shots. The results of this study suggest that quantum computing can be a powerful tool for the analysis of the chemical reactions of systems for which the spin multiplicity of the ground state and variations in this parameter are not known in advance.

## Quantum-Selected Configuration Interaction: classical diagonalization of Hamiltonians in subspaces selected by quantum computers

We propose quantum-selected configuration interaction (QSCI), a class of hybrid quantum-classical algorithms for calculating the ground- and excited-state energies of many-electron Hamiltonians on noisy quantum devices. Suppose that an approximate ground state can be prepared on a quantum computer either by variational quantum eigensolver or by some other method. Then, by sampling the state in the computational basis, which is hard for classical computation in general, one can identify the electron configurations that are important for reproducing the ground state. The Hamiltonian in the subspace spanned by those important configurations is diagonalized on classical computers to output the ground-state energy and the corresponding eigenvector. The excited-state energies can be obtained similarly. The result is robust against statistical and physical errors because the noisy quantum devices are used only to define the subspace, and the resulting ground-state energy strictly satisfies the variational principle even in the presence of such errors. The expectation values of various other operators can also be estimated for obtained eigenstates with no additional quantum cost, since the explicit eigenvectors in the subspaces are known. We verified our proposal by numerical simulations, and demonstrated it on a quantum device for an 8-qubit molecular Hamiltonian. The proposed algorithms are potentially feasible to tackle some challenging molecules by exploiting quantum devices with several tens of qubits, assisted by high-performance classical computing resources for diagonalization.

## Almost optimal measurement scheduling of molecular Hamiltonian via finite projective plane

We propose an efficient and almost optimal scheme for measuring molecular Hamiltonians in quantum chemistry on quantum computers, which requires 2N^{2} distinct measurements in the leading order with N being the number of molecular orbitals. It achieves the state-of-the-art by improving a previous proposal by Bonet-Monroig et al. [Phys. Rev. X 10, 031064 (2020)] which exhibits 17N^{2}/6 scaling in the leading order. We develop a novel method based on a finite projective plane to construct sets of simultaneously-measurable operators contained in molecular Hamiltonians. Each measurement only requires a depth-O(N) circuit consisting of O(N^{2}) one- and two-qubit gates under the Jordan-Wigner and parity mapping, assuming the linear connectivity of qubits on quantum hardwares. Because evaluating expectation values of molecular Hamiltonians is one of the major bottlenecks in the applications of quantum devices to quantum chemistry, our finding is expected to accelerate such applications.