# Publications

## Demonstrating Quantum Computation for Quasiparticle Band Structures

Understanding and predicting the properties of solid-state materials from first-principles has been a great challenge for decades. Owing to the recent advances in quantum technologies, quantum computations offer a promising way to achieve this goal. Here, we demonstrate the first-principles calculation of a quasiparticle band structure on actual quantum computers. This is achieved by hybrid quantum-classical algorithms in conjunction with qubit-reduction and error-mitigation techniques. Our demonstration will pave the way to practical applications of quantum computers.

## Computation of Green's function by local variational quantum compilation

Computation of the Green's function is crucial to study the properties of quantum many-body systems such as strongly correlated systems. Although the high-precision calculation of the Green's function is a notoriously challenging task on classical computers, the development of quantum computers may enable us to compute the Green's function with high accuracy even for classically-intractable large-scale systems. Here, we propose an efficient method to compute the real-time Green's function based on the local variational quantum compilation (LVQC) algorithm, which simulates the time evolution of a large-scale quantum system using a low-depth quantum circuit constructed through optimization on a smaller-size subsystem. Our method requires shallow quantum circuits to calculate the Green's function and can be utilized on both near-term noisy intermediate-scale and long-term fault-tolerant quantum computers depending on the computational resources we have. We perform a numerical simulation of the Green's function for the one- and two-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model up to 4×4 sites lattice (32 qubits) and demonstrate the validity of our protocol compared to a standard method based on the Trotter decomposition. We finally present a detailed estimation of the gate count for the large-scale Fermi-Hubbard model, which also illustrates the advantage of our method over the Trotter decomposition.

## Quantum-Selected Configuration Interaction: classical diagonalization of Hamiltonians in subspaces selected by quantum computers

We propose quantum-selected configuration interaction (QSCI), a class of hybrid quantum-classical algorithms for calculating the ground- and excited-state energies of many-electron Hamiltonians on noisy quantum devices. Suppose that an approximate ground state can be prepared on a quantum computer either by variational quantum eigensolver or by some other method. Then, by sampling the state in the computational basis, which is hard for classical computation in general, one can identify the electron configurations that are important for reproducing the ground state. The Hamiltonian in the subspace spanned by those important configurations is diagonalized on classical computers to output the ground-state energy and the corresponding eigenvector. The excited-state energies can be obtained similarly. The result is robust against statistical and physical errors because the noisy quantum devices are used only to define the subspace, and the resulting ground-state energy strictly satisfies the variational principle even in the presence of such errors. The expectation values of various other operators can also be estimated for obtained eigenstates with no additional quantum cost, since the explicit eigenvectors in the subspaces are known. We verified our proposal by numerical simulations, and demonstrated it on a quantum device for an 8-qubit molecular Hamiltonian. The proposed algorithms are potentially feasible to tackle some challenging molecules by exploiting quantum devices with several tens of qubits, assisted by high-performance classical computing resources for diagonalization.

## Qulacs: a fast and versatile quantum circuit simulator for research purpose

We introduce Qulacs, a fast simulator for quantum circuits intended for research purpose. To explore the possibilities of a near-term intermediate-scale quantum algorithm and long-term fault-tolerant quantum computing, a fast and versatile quantum circuit simulator is needed. Herein we show the main concepts of Qulacs, explain how to use its features via examples, and demonstrate its performance with numerical benchmarks.

## Variational Quantum Simulation for Periodic Materials

We present a quantum-classical hybrid algorithm that simulates electronic structures of periodic systems such as ground states and quasiparticle band structures. By extending the unitary coupled cluster (UCC) theory to describe crystals in arbitrary dimensions, we numerically demonstrate in hydrogen chain that the UCC ansatz implemented on a quantum circuit can be successfully optimized with a small deviation from the exact diagonalization over the entire range of the potential energy curves. Furthermore, with the aid of the quantum subspace expansion method, in which we truncate the Hilbert space within the linear response regime from the ground state, the quasiparticle band structure is computed as charged excited states. Our work establishes a powerful interface between the rapidly developing quantum technology and modern material science.

## Predicting excited states from ground state wavefunction by supervised quantum machine learning

Excited states of molecules lie in the heart of photochemistry and chemical reactions. The recent development in quantum computational chemistry leads to inventions of a variety of algorithms which calculate the excited states of molecules on near-term quantum computers, but they require more computational burdens than the algorithms for the ground states. In this study, we propose a scheme of supervised quantum machine learning which predicts excited state properties of molecules only from its ground state wavefunction and results in reducing the computational cost for calculating the excited states. Our model is comprised of a quantum reservoir and a classical machine learning unit which processes the results of measurements of single-qubit Pauli operators. The quantum reservoir effectively transforms the single-qubit operators into complicated multi-qubit ones which contain essential information of the system, so that the classical machine learning unit may decode them appropriately. The number of runs for quantum computers is saved by training only the classical machine learning unit and the whole model requires modest resources of quantum hardwares which may be implemented in current experiments. We illustrate the predictive ability of our model by numerical simulations for small molecules with and without including noise inevitable in near-term quantum computers. The results show that our scheme well reproduces the first and second excitation energies as well as the transition dipole moment between the ground states and excited states only from the ground state as an input. Our contribution will enhance applications of quantum computers in the study of quantum chemistry and quantum materials.

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