Bias-preserving computation with the bit-flip code

We explore the feasibility of fault-tolerant quantum computation using the bit-flip repetition code in a biased noise channel where only the bit-flip error can occur. While several logic gates can potentially produce phase-flip errors even in such a channel, we propose bias-preserving implementation of S, H, CZ, and Rz gates. We demonstrate that our scheme improves the computational precision in several tasks such as the time evolution of quantum systems and variational quantum eigensolver.


Quantum chemistryFault-tolerant quantum computer
Shoichiro Tsutsui, Keita Kanno

Classical variational optimization of PREPARE circuit for quantum phase estimation of quantum chemistry Hamiltonians

We propose a method for constructing PREPARE circuits for quantum phase estimation of a molecular Hamiltonian in quantum chemistry by using variational optimization of quantum circuits solely on classical computers. The PREPARE circuit generates a quantum state which encodes the coefficients of the terms in the Hamiltonian as probability amplitudes and plays a crucial role in the state-of-the-art efficient implementations of quantum phase estimation. We employ the automatic quantum circuit encoding algorithm [Shirakawa et al., arXiv:2112.14524] to construct PREPARE circuits, which requires classical simulations of quantum circuits of O(logN) qubits with N being the number of qubits of the Hamiltonian. The generated PREPARE circuits do not need any ancillary qubit. We demonstrate our method by investigating the number of T-gates of the obtained PREPARE circuits for quantum chemistry Hamiltonians of various molecules, which shows a constant-factor reduction compared to previous approaches that do not use ancillary qubits. Since the number of available logical qubits and T gates will be limited at the early stage of the fault-tolerant quantum computing, the proposed method is particularly of use for performing the quantum phase estimation with such limited capability.


Fault-tolerant quantum computerQuantum chemistryCondensed matter physics
Hayata Morisaki, Kosuke Mitarai, Keisuke Fujii, Yuya O. Nakagawa

Modal analysis on quantum computers via qubitization

Natural frequencies and normal modes are basic properties of a structure which play important roles in analyses of its vibrational characteristics. As their computation reduces to solving eigenvalue problems, it is a natural arena for application of quantum phase estimation algorithms, in particular for large systems. In this note, we take up some simple examples of (classical) coupled oscillators and show how the algorithm works by using qubitization methods based on a sparse structure of the matrix. We explicitly construct block-encoding oracles along the way, propose a way to prepare initial states, and briefly touch on a more generic oracle construction for systems with repetitive structure. As a demonstration, we also give rough estimates of the necessary number of physical qubits and actual runtime it takes when carried out on a fault-tolerant quantum computer.


Fault-tolerant quantum computer
Yasunori Lee, Keita Kanno

Quantum Error Detection with Generalized Syndrome Measurement

Quantum error detection has been an experimental focus on early fault-tolerant quantum hardware. However, it requires multiple mid-circuit measurements to extract the syndrome and the readout-induced noise acts as a main contribution to the state infidelity. We present a novel method named Generalized Syndrome Measurement for quantum error detection that only requires a single-shot measurement on a single ancilla, while the canonical syndrome measurement needs to measure multiple times to extract the syndrome for each stabilizer generator. Our method minimizes the readout-induced noise by using single-shot measurements with a tolerable overhead on the gate complexity. We simulated the performance of our method using [[4, 2, 2]] and [[5, 1, 3]] code under realistic noise, and our method outperforms the canonical method when the gate error is comparatively small than the readout error. As mid-circuit measurements are more costly for various kinds of near-term scalable quantum hardware, our method can significantly boost the development of early fault-tolerant quantum computing.


NISQ deviceFault-tolerant quantum computer
Yunzhe Zheng, Keita Kanno

Clifford+T-gate Decomposition with Limited Number of T gates, its Error Analysis, and Performance of Unitary Coupled Cluster Ansatz in Pre-FTQC Era

Fault-tolerant quantum computation (FTQC) is essential to robustly implement quantum algorithms and thus to maximize advantages of quantum computers. In this context, a quantum circuit is decomposed into universal gates that can be fault-tolerantly implemented, for example, Clifford+T gates. Here, T gate is usually regarded as an essential resource for quantum computation because its action cannot be simulated efficiently on classical computers. Practically, it is highly likely that only a limited number of T gates are available in the near future due to its experimental difficulty of fault-tolerant implementation. In this paper, considering this Pre-FTQC era, we investigate Clifford+T decomposition with a limited budget of T gates and propose a new model of the error of such decomposition. More concretely, we propose an algorithm to generate the most accurate Clifford+T-gate decomposition of a given single-qubit rotation gate with a fixed number of T gates. We also propose to model the error of Clifford+T decomposition using well-known depolarizing noise by considering the average of the effects of the error. We numerically verified our model successfully explains the decomposition error for a wide variety of molecules using our decomposition algorithm. Thus, we shed light on a first-stage application of quantum computers from a practical point of view and fuel further research towards what quantum computation can achieve in the upcoming future.


Quantum chemistryNISQ deviceFault-tolerant quantum computer
Kohdai Kuroiwa, Yuya O. Nakagawa